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Houghton uses as appropriate the relationship designators found in RDA's appendices I-M and those maintained by the Bibliographic Standards Committee of RBMS: http://rbms.info/committees/bibliographic_standards/controlled_vocabularies/relators/alphabetical_list.htm. We do not currently use relator codes.

This website also provides a link to the more comprehensive list of relator terms maintained by LC. Some guidelines:

  1. In pre-1821 imprints, when both printer and publisher are named in the record, use the appropriate term with each name. If only one is present, generally use the term "printer". For modern imprints when an entry is called for, it is usually the printer we are interested in tracing.
  2. If both illustrators and engravers are traced, use the appropriate term with each. If the engraver is also the creator of the design, use the term "illustrator" (i.e. for the broader function).
  3. In cases where a person fills more than one function:
    1. When both names are added entries, use multiple relators in separate subfield e's.
    2. When the name is also serving as the authorized access point, make an added entry with the appropriate subfield e (e.g. "illustrator" or "former owner") [Occasional exceptions can be made, for instance, in the case of a vanity publications, one need not make an added entry for the name serving as authorized access point with a subfield e "publisher']
  4. While the abbreviations "ed., "tr.", and "ill." were formerly encouraged at Houghton, the PCC now recommends that catalogers apply RDA relationship designators rather than MARC relator terms and codes in all new PCC cataloging.
  5. Terms not on RDA-established lists are acceptable. These lists include:

    and others listed on the LOC's Source List

    Also helpful is the PCC Table of MARC relators and RDA relationship designators: http://pccrelationshipdesignatortg.pbworks.com/w/file/fetch/57911454/relationship_designators.xlsx

    In a pinch, we can establish our own; but if this is desirable, such terms need to be discussed by the RBT before using. Once agreed upon, we will use this wiki to keep a list.

    Acceptable Local Relationship Designators:

    • Introducer (for use primarily for audio and video recordings)
  6. RDA Appendix I.1 says "If the relationship element is considered sufficient for the purposes of the agency creating the data, do not use a relationship designator to indicate the specific nature of the relationship." While we won't require that all corporate access points get relationship designators, they are encouraged - most particularly if the relationship between the corporate access point and the item being cataloged is not clear.


  7. Always place relationship designators in subfield e. Do NOT use subfield 4 relator term codes.