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Transliterating Chaghatay is somewhat complicated because one is often transliterating Turkic, Persian, Arabic, and Mongol words all together in the same sentence.

The standard is to transliterate Arabic as Arabic, Persian as Persian, and Turkic as Turkic (as best can be approximated). This means: Arabic and Persian words will indicate vowel length with macrons over long vowels (ā ī ū), while Turkic words will not. قیلماق, for example, is written qilmaq, not *qīlmāq. It's also good to indicate vowel quality when you can, inserting ö, ü, ï, ä, etc., where it is correct to do so. كورماك, for example, is probably körmäk.

This chart is adapted in part from the Library of Congress transliteration systems for Arabic, Persian, and Ottoman and from the system used for transliterating Khwarezmian in DeWeese 1985, p. 420. It approximates the transliteration systems used most frequently, but it should be somewhat easier to type. For difficult characters, such as <ï>, it may be easiest to type them out in your favorite word processor and copy and paste them in.

ب

b, p

آ

پ

p

ا

a or ä

ت

t

ای

é, i, ï, ī, ay, or äy

ث

s

او

ū, ü, o, ö, av, or äv

ج

j

و

o/ö, u/ü

چ

ch

ی

é, i, ï, or ī

ح

final ه

a or ä

خ

kh

(no vowel)

(as appropriate)

د

d



ذ

dh



ر

r



ز

z



ژ

zh



س

s



ش

sh



ص



ض

ż (Turkic), ḍ (Arabic)



ط



ظ



ع



غ

gh



ف

f



ق

q



ك

k



ل

l



م

m



ن

n



ه، ة

h or t



و

v (Turkic), w (Arabic)



ی

y



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