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[updated 04/24/2014]

DACS states that “It is a local decision which names, terms, and concepts found in a description will be included as formal access points.” The subject access points are assigned to a collection-level record to provide additional access according to established subject cataloging principles and guidelines. All valid access points can be indexed as long as each one is justified by being explicitly stated or implied in the text for the collection entry. As a broad, general guideline, make added entries when the content of the collection material contains either "quality or quantity."  


Note: for a bibliographic record to meet Harvard minimum full-cataloging level standards, one added entry is required. 

1. Always add a subject heading for the main entry>1xx in addition to the 1xx entry for the author. (See 600, 610, 611 below).

        2. Add at least one 650 general entry to categorize the collection into a literary or historical time period. (See >650 below).

        3. Add a >651 entry (if possible and sensible), to categorize the collection into a geographic location  (see >651 below).

4.  Add a least one 655 (if possible and sensible). One function of these added entries is to bring together similar items (logbooks, commonplace books, photographs, diaries) and these 'form/genre' added entries should be used freely. (See >655 below).


Fields 600, 610, 611, 630, 650, 651 display in HOLLIS OPAC as ‘SUBJECTS:’. 

Field  655 displays in HOLLIS OPAC as ‘FORM/GENRE:’. 

Field  656 displays in HOLLIS OPAC as 'KEYWORD SUBJ.'.


Constructing subject headings:  To construct a proper subject heading, read most current version of LC Subject Cataloging Manual available in Cataloger’s Desktop. Within this document one can find full lists of possible free-floating subfields including form subfields possible to use with $$v. 

The dash (-) that precedes a subdivision in an extended 6xx subject heading is not carried in the MARC record. It is system generated as a display constant associated with the content of subfield $$v, $$x, $$y, and $$z.


ALEPH searching:  The current ALEPH system provides an easy way to check for subject headings that have already been used in ALEPH and to acquire the correct form for your record.  After you have created a subject added entry, press the F3 key and the system will take you to ALEPH and show what other records have used this form of the heading.  If you hit "enter" the proper form of the entry will be inserted into your record. This is also useful for aligning your subjects with those used by others at Houghton and/or Harvard. 


NOTE: As of 04/24/2014 the following documents serve as drafts of past 6xx practices involving manuscripts: H:\HOUGHTON\Technical Services\MS Section\MS Documentation\Form genre list draft.doc This document may be added to by cataloging staff and comments may be left.  [THIS DOCUMENT NEEDS TO BE REVIEWED.]


600   Subject added entry – personal name/family name.  

[updated 04/24/2014]


1st       0      Forename.

                   1      Surname.

                   3      Family name.

2nd      0      Thesaurus: ‘Value 0 indicates that the formulation of the subject added entry conforms to the LCSH

NOTE: At the moment we do not use the other indicators for this position. DACS suggest we can formulate names as per EAC-CPF; if this were to be accepted, we would add a 2nd indicator of 7= Source specified in subfield $$2   At the moment this is accepted in ALEPH]


$$a   personal name

$$b   numeration

$$c   titles and other words associated with a name

$$d   dates associated with a name (all as in >100).                          

$$e   relator term

 $$j   attribution qualifier

$$q   fuller form of name

$$t   title of a work

$$v   form subdivision  full list of possible forms is available in LC Subject heading documentation 

Punctuation: End with a mark of punctuation.



600  30   $$a McAllister family. [For a collection that has information about this family]

600  10   $$a Little, John, $$d1809-1911 $$vPortraits. [For a collection that has portrait images of John Little.]


610  Subject added entry – corporate name.  

[updated 04/24/2014]

This field contains a corporate name used as a subject added entry.  


1st       0      Inverted name

    1      Jurisdiction name (including ecclesiastical names).

    2      Name in direct order.

2nd      0      Thesaurus ‘Value 0 indicates that the formulation of the subject added entry conforms to the LCSH


$$a   Corporate name or jurisdiction name as entry element.

 $$b   Subordinate unit.

$$c   Location of meeting.

$$d   Date of meeting or treaty signing.

$$e   Relator term.

$$v   Form subdivision

Punctuation: End with a mark of punctuation. 


610 10 $$aGreat Britain. $$bHome Office.

610 20  $$aHarvard University.  $$bPresident’s Office.  


611   Subject added entry – meeting name.  

[updated 04/24/2014]

Contains a meeting or conference name used as a subject added entry. This entry might occasionally be wanted. In this case see the full MARC standard in the Cataloger's Desktop.  


630  Subject added entry – uniform title.  

[updated 04/24/2014]

This field is necessary when adding a uniform title used as a subject added entry in the collection. See MARC21 standards for further information


1st       0-9    number of non-filing characters.

2nd      0       Thesaurus ‘Value 0 indicates that the formulation of the subject added entry conforms to the LCSH

Subfields possible. See full MARC standard.

Punctuation: End with a mark of punctuation.



630 00  $$a New York times. 

630 40  $$a The Mary Tyler Moore show.


650   Subject added entry – topical term. 

[updated 04/24/2014]

Only subjects that are in LCSH should go in this field. LCSH is available on line at: Classification Web or use authorities in OCLC or on the LC web site.


1st       <blank>    no information provided

2nd      0              Thesaurus ‘Value 0 indicates that the formulation of the subject added entry conforms to the LCSH


650   _0  $$a Shuffleboard.  

650   _0  $$a Chess.  

650  _0  $$a Astrology.  


$$a   Topical term or geographic name entry element.  Contains a topical  subject or geographic name used as an entry element for a topical term.  

$$c   Location of event. 

$$d   Active dates. 

$$v   Form subdivision. Form subdivisions indicate what the item is rather than what it is about.

                        650 _0 $$a Scuba diving$$v Periodicals.

                        650 _0 $$a Racetracks (Horse-racing) $$vPhotographs.

$$x   General subdivision. Contains a subject subdivision that is not more appropriately contained in subfields $$v, $$y, or $$z.  

                        650 _0 $$a Universities and colleges $$x Corrupt practices.

$$y   Chronological subdivision. Contains a subdivision that represents a period of time. 

                        650 _0   $$a Music  $$y 500-1400.

                        650 _0   $$a Architecture, Modern  $$y 19th century.

$$z   Geographic subdivision.

                        650 _0 $$a World War, 1939-1945  $$x Campaigns  $$z Tunisia.

Note: no spaces are used in initials, acronyms, or abbreviations (except: W. Va.).

Subfields $$v, x, y, z are introduced by dashes, supplied by the system, in the OPAC display. 

Punctuation: End field with a mark of punctuation or a closing parenthesis. 

651   Subject added entry – geographic name.

[updated 04/24/2014]

Contains a geographic name used as a subject added entry.Cataloger should try to enter at least one >650 or >651.


1st       <blank>    Undefined

2nd      0              Thesaurus ‘Value 0 indicates that the formulation of the subject added entry conforms to the LCSH’ 


$$a   Geographic name, including parenthetical qualifying information, if any  (for list of ambiguous terms, see USMARC21). 

651 _0 $$a Chelsea (London, England)

$$v   Form subdivision.  Designates a specific kind of genre of material as defined by the thesaurus being used. 

 651_0  $$aRussia$$xHistory$$vMaps.

$$x   General subdivision (not contained in $$v, $$y, or $$z).  

651 _0 $$aTexas$$xOfficials and employees$$xAccidents.  

$$y   Chronological subdivision

651 _0 $$aUnited States $$xHistory $$y Civil War, 1861-1865.     

651 _0 $$a Uruguay $$x History $$y Great War, 1843-1852.

$$z   Geographic subdivision

651 _0 $$a United States $$z Massachusetts.

655   Index term – form/genre/physical characteristics. 

 [updated 04/24/2014]

Contains terms indicating the genre, form, and/or physical characteristics of the materials being described. ‘Genre’ terms for textual materials designate specific kinds of materials distinguished by the style or technique of their intellectual contents; for example, biographies, catechisms, essays, hymns, or reviews. Form and physical characteristic terms designate historically and functionally specific kinds of materials as distinguished by an examination of their physical character, subject of their intellectual content, or the order of information within them; for example, daybooks, diaries, directories, journals, memoranda, ques­tionnaires, syllabi, financial records, time sheets, etc…

In the context of graphic materials, genre headings denote categories of material distinguished by vantage point, intended purpose, characteristics of the creator, publication status, or method of representation. 

For each term found in the field, an identification is given as to the thesaurus list from which the term came. The lists are identified either by the second indicator (Thesaurus) or by subfield $$2 (Source of term). 

This field displays in HOLLIS OPAC as ‘Form/Genre:’ 

In general, all form and genre terms used frequently in the finding aid should be put into these fields. The exception to this recommendation are the terms: letters and correspondence which are terms that tend to be so common as to render them useless in these MARC records. 

Also use a genreform term for material types found less often, but deemed significant. Terms entered in this field are, preferably, derived from standard published lists:

The Art and Architecture Thesaurus is our preferred thesaurus and should be consulted first.

Library of Congress Subject Headings, Graphic Materials and other sources are also available. 

The Harvard bib standards committee documentation on the 655 field states: “In order to provide the most comprehensive subject access, we recommend the use of duplicate terms in 650 and 655 fields when appropriate.” 

Note: If the main entry of a collection is a Harvard College graduate, we always make an added entry of:

     655 _7 Harvard graduates' papers. $$2local

Punctuation: End the last subfield before $$2 with a mark of punctuation.


1st:       <blank>    ‘basic’ (Genre/form data is recorded in a single occurrence of subfield $a. 0 = ‘faceted’; but we do not use this).

2nd       0              Thesaurus: Library of Congress Subject Heading is the source.

   7              Thesaurus: Source specified in subfield $$2. Note that in this field the source is always specified, even if it is LCSH.

Subfields: You should subdivide the form/genre fields when there are more than 10 of the same broad terms listed in HOLLIS:

$$a   Genre/form data or focus term.

$$x   General subdivision

655 _7  $$aDictionaries$$xFrench$$y19th century.

$$y   Chronological subdivision

655_7  $$aCompetition drawings$$y1984.

$$z   Geographic subdivision

655 _7 $$aHymnals$$zMassachusetts$$y18th century.

$$2   Source of term in $$a; required.  The  following codes are used: 

aat   Art and architecture thesaurus. This is the preferred source.

Lcsh   Library of Congress subject headings

gmgpc  Thesaurus for graphic materials: TGM II, Genre and physical characteristic terms (LC). A copy of this thesaurus is available in Cataloger’s Desktop.

rbbin   Binding terms: a thesaurus for use in rare book and special collections cataloguing. (ALA)  Available online.

rbgenr   Genre terms: a thesaurus for use in rare book and special collections cataloguing.  (ALA)

rbpap   Paper terms: a thesaurus for use in rare book and special collections cataloging.  (ALA)  Available online. The three ALA manuals are also available within the Houghton building as hard copies. 

local   Use for a term that is not in AAT etc. 


655 _7      Artists’ books $$z United States $$z Massachusetts $$y 1996. $$2 aat

655 _7      Diaries $$z Belgium. $$2 aat

655 _7      Cartoons  $$y 1952.  $$2 gmgpc

655 _7      Armorial bindings (Binding)  $$z France  $$y 18th century. $$2 rbbin

655 _7      Doublures (Binding) $$2 rbbin

655 _7      Costume design drawing. $$2 gmgpc

655_7       Drawings $$z United States $$y19th century. $$2 gmgpc  [see printed book cataloging manual for more complete information about subdividing graphic materials]


NOTE:  A list of digital and media types of materials needs to be developed here.


656   Index term – occupation.

[updated 04/24/2014]

This field contains index terms giving occupations (including avocations) reflected in the contents of the described materials.  It is not used to list the occupations of the creators of the described materials, unless those occupations are significantly reflected in the materials themselves.  Use  thesauri as described in >655 above, with the AAT being preferred. 

We use this field rarely; it is preferred to use a 650 to indicate subject materials about a specific profession.

This field displays in HOLLIS as ‘Occupation:’ 


1st:       <blank>    Undefined

2nd        7             Source of term: Source specified in subfield $$2. Note that in this field the source is always specified, even if it is LCSH.

Subfields: use subfield $$2 for source of index term.



656  _7  Photographers.$$2aat

656  _7  Musicians.$$2aat

656  _7  Journalists.$$2aat

656  _7  Theater critics.$$2lcsh

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